Clean Energy Forum 2019
On November 29, 2019, the ENERPO Research Center at the European University at St. Petersburg held the Fourth International Clean Energy Forum. This year’s forum brought together representatives of business, government and nonprofit organizations, as well as representatives of the academic community, in particular, to discuss education and awareness for sustainable development. This report presents the main statements of the conference experts, who addressed sustainable energy development and renewable energy education and sustainable development. This year, the forum discussed the practices of large cities and companies and examined communication issues for the propagation of practices in Russia.
Key words: Clean Energy Forum; Clean Energy; Climate Change; Energy Policy; Business; Energy Strategy; Russian Climate Policy
5th International Workshop on Economic Growth, Environment, and Natural Resources
On May 31 and June 1, 2019, the Fifth International Workshop on Economic Growth, the environment and natural resources was organized by the European University at St. Petersburg (EUSP) and ETH Zurich. The workshop participants, which included eminent professors, associate and young researchers, discussed a wide range of topics related to the environment, climate and energy policy and economic growth at EUSP.
This report summarises several noteworthy presentations by speakers at the event.
Key words: Climate Change; Сlimate Policy; Economic Growth; Energy Policy; Environment; Fossil Fuels; Natural Resources; Renewable energy; Sustainable development
German-Russian Energy Relations: Challenges of 2019 and a Move towards the Future
Joshua R. Kroeker
This analysis paper explores the contours of German-Russian energy relations in recent years. As the result of political tensions in the international sphere, such as the ongoing Ukraine Crisis, German-Russian relations have been thrown into flux. Germany’s ever-growing dependence on Russian natural gas has received local and international opposition. Nevertheless, German-Russian energy relations have remained stable and have even improved, with an increase in German imports of Russian gas and oil and a confirmation of future willingness on the Russian side to supply. As surveyed throughout this paper, German-Russian energy relations, evidenced by the final stages of the Nord Stream 2 project, symbolize a new level of cooperation between the two nations and indicate a dimension of resilience in the general relationship.
Key words: Energy Relations; Nord Stream 2; Gazprom; German-Russian Relations
China’s Demand Impact on Eurasia Gas Pricing
China’s investments in both Yamal-Nenets and Turkmenistan have the potential to transform global gas production into market-forced and commoditized trade. Ultimately, China’s and Russia’s continued state dominance will mean that gas prices will remain a shadow commodity for the foreseeable future.
Key words: Arctic Ocean; China; Central Asia; Caspian Sea; Eurasia; LNG; Natural Gas
China’s Belt and Road Initiative in Central Asia: A Case Study on Weaponised Interdependence in Energy, Transit, and Information Networks
This exploratory research paper aims to further develop conversation around ‘weaponised interdependence’, a concept recently introduced by Henry Farrell and Abraham Newman. Although Farrell and Newman mention multiple actors that can weaponise interdependence, their research concentrated on the US. This paper therefore identifies a research gap on other potential weaponisers and the alternate forms of interdependence they may create. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with relevant officials and academics in Russia and Kazakhstan, this paper applies weaponized interdependence to the case study of China’s Belt and Road Initiative in Central Asia. While suggesting that China, like the US, may have the potential to weaponise financial and information flows in the region (the forms of interdependence that Farrell and Newman focus on), this paper suggests that weaponised interdependence may also be applicable to physical infrastructure such as roads and pipelines. Expanding on Farrell and Newman’s concept of the ‘disruptive actor’, the paper also explores the potential role Russia could play within China’s network.
Key words: Belt and Road Initiative; Central Asia; New Interdependence Approach; Sino-Russian Relations; Weaponised Interdependence